What is a Mortgage?
A mortgage is a loan that is secured by property or real estate. In exchange for funds received by the homebuyer to buy property or a home, a lender gets the promise of that buyer to pay back the funds within a certain time frame for a certain cost. The mortgage is legally binding and secures the note in giving the lender the right to have legal claim against the borrower’s home if the borrower defaults on the terms of the note. Basically, the borrower has possession of the property or the home, but the lender is the one who owns it until it is completely paid off.
Applying For A Mortgage
The process of applying for a mortgage loan can be a stressful. The first thing a borrower should do before going to their bank is acquire a copy of each credit report and check it for errors.
If there is any incorrect information, it needs to be disputed as outstanding issues can cause a mortgage application to be rejected or lead lenders to charge a higher rate of interest.
The borrower should know what type of home is desired, how much they qualify for and what their budget affords. Those constraints can determine the mortgage type and term.
The lender receives an appraisal of the property and this appraisal determines the market value of the home, which is used for collateral in the loan. The borrower is charged a fee for the appraisal service and is usually included in the closing costs.
When the mortgage application is complete, the borrower will be asked for a considerable amount of information. That is why the borrower should be prepared to give the lender the following information:
- Bank information such as the name, address, account numbers, and three months of statements.
- Three months of investment statements.
- W-2s, pay stubs, proof of employment and two years worth of income.
- Tax returns and balance sheets for the self-employed.
- Debt currently owed, including amounts due and account numbers.
- Divorce papers, if they apply.
Once the application is completed, the lender will review the application and decide whether to deny or approve it.
If approved, the last step in the process is the meeting in which documentation is completed and the deal is closed.
If denied, the prospective borrower should talk to the lender in order to devise a plan and find out why the application was denied. By law, the prospective borrower should receive a disclosure statement from the lender in writing that states why the application was turned down.
Buying a home and applying for a mortgage is a big step. This glossary can help you understand every step of the process. Below are mortgage terms used by loan officers and real estate professionals.
commonly used mortgage loan application developed by Fannie Mae. Sometimes called the Uniform Residential Loan Application.
a verbal or written acceptance of an offer to buy a home, made from the seller to the buyer.
a land measurement commonly used in U.S. property negotiations. One acre equals 43,560 square feet.
Adjustable Rate Mortgage | ARM
a type of mortgage loan characterized by interest rates that automatically adjust or fluctuate in concert with certain market indexes. Generally an ARM begins with an introductory or initial interest rate, which then may rise or fall, but monthly payments may not exceed the ARM loan cap.
the process of a loan’s value over a period of time. Often amortization is laid out on an amortization schedule or measured by an amortization calculator.
Annual percentage rate, APR
the truest cost of a home loan. Per the Truth in Lending Act, all mortgage lenders must disclose their APR. In the mortgage industry, APR may include fees such as documentation fees, private mortgage insurance and more.
the measurable value that increases on a home or property. Market improvements and home renovations often drive appreciation value.
a value determined by local government assessors and used to calculate annual property or real estate taxes.
a type of mortgage that may be transferred, interest rate and all, from seller to buyer – like FHA loans.
fees due during closing.
a short-term high-risk loan that leaves the borrower with a potentially high loan balance at the end of the loan term. Some of these loans automatically renew at prevailing rates, whereas others may require the balloon payment be paid in full.
the individual or individuals extended a loan and mortgage for the purchase of a house and/or property. Borrower is responsible for making all payments and fees associated with the loan over the life of the loan. Legal
a short-term loan used to quickly effect a sale while pending more conventional real estate financing. While not popular, a bridge loan can be useful particularly for certain commercial real estate deals.
a situation in which a seller or lender kicks in a sum of money in order to lower the initial interest rate on a home loan to make a sale more appealing for the buyer.
real estate agent that works on behalf of the homebuyer.
maximum monthly payment a borrower may be expected to pay on a loan.
profit earned on an asset, such as a home or property.
Capital gain tax
a tax levied against the profit made on the sale of a home and/or property.
Cash out refinance
a second mortgage in which the borrower extracts home equity at the same time a refinance deal is made; an alternative to a home equity loan.
the formal documented sale of a home and/or property that includes signing all documents associated with the exchange and payment of required closing fees. A closing agent usually oversees this process.
the person responsible for mediating the closing, documenting the process and assuring all associated paperwork is completed. May be an attorney or official from a title or mortgage company.
real estate transaction related fees payable by the buyer and seller during a closing. A wide variety of fees may be included, such as title search, attorney’s fees, origination fees, documentation fees and more.
an itemized list of closing costs.
a borrower with good credit that agrees to take on shared responsibility for a home loan so that the primary borrower may purchase property.
a type of loan that combines an initial loan typically for new home construction, with a second conventional home loan that supplants the first.
a document from a lender to a borrower that officially lays out the terms of a loan.
Comparable sales, comps
similar home sale prices in the region used as a metric in the calculation of a home’s appraised value.
a conventional loan characterized by loan limits that fall within those guidelines laid out by the Government Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs) such as Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae.
a short-term loan for new home construction that is supplanted with a conventional long-term home loan. See combination loan.
any one of a number of common clauses added to real estate agreements that provide buyer or seller rights during various stages of a transaction.
a mortgage offered by any one of the Government sponsored entities, different from an FHA or VA loan. These are typically 30-year fixed-rate loans.
money extended from a lender to a borrower based on that borrower’s credit history.
Date of closing
date upon which all paperwork associated with a mortgage/property sales exchange is finalized.
Date of possession
actual date upon which the buyer will move into a home or property; it is usually the closing date, but may be another agreed upon date as well.
amount of money a borrower owes to creditors. A metric used to calculate creditworthiness.
an official and public document that establishes property ownership.
Deed of reconveyance
when a borrower has paid in full on a mortgage, the lender then awards the borrower a deed of reconveyance. This document becomes also a part of public record. Also known as reconveyance deed and recon.
Deed of trust
a document that in some states is used in place of a mortgage. A deed of trust may be held by a third party, similar to a mortgage.
inability of borrower to make regular and consecutive payments on a loan.
the measure of loss in value of a home or property. Depreciation could be driven by poor economic factors or property damage.
a measure of interest; 1 point = 1% of the home loan value. Homebuyers may pay points up front, a type of buy-down, in order to lower their overall interest rate and mortgage payment.
a sum of money usually put up by the buyer when an offer on a home or property is made. The purpose of earnest money is as a token of good faith, a symbol that the buyer is seriously pursuing purchase.
the measurable value of a home or property above and beyond that owed on a loan. A value upon which many homeowners often borrow.
a separate account held by a mortgage lender out of which required property bills, separate from the loan payment, are made. Property taxes and insurance are examples of costs paid out of escrow. Sometimes called an “impound account.”
the price that a piece of property will bear in the current market.
a private mortgage corporation that began as a government subsidized entity in the late 30s. Today Fannie Mae, along with Freddie Mac, is a government sponsored enterprise (GSE) and together they are responsible for setting annual conforming loan limits and assuring that most Americans are able to finance a home. Fannie Mae is commonly known as a secondary mortgage market and lends to mortgage lenders which in turn extend mortgages to borrowers.
Federal Housing Administration.
loans extended by FHA-approved lenders typically are designed to assist borrowers unable for various reasons to get the approval necessary for conventional home loans.
First time buyer
a home loan borrower who has never taken out a mortgage before; often qualifies for various discounts and first-time buyer perks.
Fixed rate mortgage
a conventional mortgage that is outfitted with a fixed interest rate over the life of the loan. Monthly payments are the same from month to month.
in most real estate cases a lender will require a flood certification before making a loan on a home. In areas where a property falls in a flood zone, the borrower may be required to purchase standalone flood insurance before a mortgage and/or home loan is approved.
the repossession of a home and/or property by a lender in the event of borrower loan default or the inability to meet mortgage agreements.
in concert with Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac is a leading government sponsored enterprise (GSE) and is responsible for maintaining reasonable mortgage market stability, this assuring that Americans are able to purchase homes. Freddie Mac is a secondary mortgage market, meaning the corporation lends to lenders, which in turn extend mortgage products directly to borrowers.
Good Faith Estimate
an itemized list of anticipated loan costs and closing fees passed from a lender to a potential borrower within three days of an application for a home loan. This is a required step in the loan application process per the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act.
a mortgage which is insured by a government agency like the U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs or the Federal Housing Administration.
also known as homeowner’s insurance; extra insurance taken out on a home that protects the borrower and lender in the event of damage. Usually covers the value of the home.
a home loan extended to borrowers with poor credit history or that fall outside the conventional or conforming loan limits set by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Sub-prime loan is an example of a high-risk loan.
a comprehensive and exhaustive examination of a home by a licensed inspector. Often required as part of a mortgage and home loan process.
Home inspection contingency clause
a clause added to an offer letter that gives the buyer certain rights pending home inspection. A buyer may ask the seller to repair defects discovered during the home inspection or even request release from the offer to buy in light of a home inspection.
not a mortgage, but the actual amount of money a buyer owes the lender in the purchase of a home.
Home price index
financial and market tool that provides historical data on residential home prices in various regions.
an association attached to a neighborhood, apartment, condo or town home complex that establishes certain rules of ownership. Common, but not exhaustive, responsibilities of a homeowner’s association includes collection of neighborhood dues for landscape maintenance or membership in recreation and entertainment facilities.
insurance that protects the value of the home for both lender and borrower. Homeowner’s insurance typically covers the cost of replacing the home and various parts of the same. Most mortgage lenders require borrowers to carry a term of insurance.
the purchase of a house or property at a reduced market rate for the purpose of a quick turnaround, a “flip,” and profit. Most house flippers must do some renovation or home fix-up in order to turn a profit on a home.
a real estate corporation in which buyers own a share of real estate holdings and may reside in a co-op unit. Shareholders do not have mortgages, but pay on a cut of the shares and earn equity over the long term.
a type of loan available to HUD homebuyers that goes toward fixing up a home. The loan is subsequently absorbed into the mortgage. The term “HUD loan” is often confused with “FHA loan.”
See, Escrow account.
Initial interest rate, introductory
the interest rate at which an Adjustable Rate Mortgage, ARM, will begin. See Adjustable rate mortgage.
a figure calculated as a percentage that is used in the financial industry to indicate the rate charged for use of money in a loan. Interest rates may be fixed or variable. See, Annual percentage rate.
real estate bought for investment purposes as opposed to private residential. Often the property will be used for rental purposes, such as rental home, apartments or other spaces that give owners the opportunity to create profit and income over the long term.
a type of property ownership in which two people share equally in a home and/or property; common for spouses.
a type of property ownership in which two or more people share.
a type of high-risk loan, or non-conforming loan, in which the “jumbo” loan amount is higher than that of a conventional loan limit.
typically included in fees associated with closing costs, sometimes called processing fees; designed to cover costs incurred by lenders during the loan process.
Lender, mortgage lender
the bank or finance company that directly awards home loan or mortgage money to a borrower or homebuyer. Legal-mortgagee.
a formal, legal symbol of money owed on a major asset such as property. Also, mortgage.
money lent from a financial institution to a creditworthy borrower(s) over a specified period of time and at a particular interest rate.
typically applied to the term of a home loan or mortgage; the life span of a mortgage; for example, a 15-year loan matures in 15 years, the period of time in which the debt must be paid off.
a legal document between a mortgagor and a mortgagee that establishes a home and/or property as security for a home loan.
A fixed-income security which derives its cashflow from payments on a pool of underlying residential or commercial mortgages.
the entity that acts as a go-between between a homebuyer and mortgage lender, handling paperwork and finally effecting a mortgage. A broker does not make direct loans to buyers, but works to find the best deal and finally collects fees as part of the mortgage process.
online financial tools available on many sites that allow potential buyers to plug in various personal financial figures to arrive at a mortgage value they can afford.
could be either a brokerage business or a direct lender.
when buyers take out a mortgage with less than a certain dollar percentage to put down on the loan, lenders require them to pay mortgage insurance, a monthly premium that is added to the mortgage. This protects the lender should a buyer default on the home loan.
Mortgage Insurance Premium, MIP
a required fee added into a FHA loan, paid at closing.
the actual company that lends the mortgage, the “originator.”
a sales tactic to attract buyers who may be unable to pay out of pocket closing fees. Typically a no-fee or no-cost mortgage is bundled with a slightly higher interest rate that more than makes up the difference in so-called “no fees” over the life of the loan.
see subprime mortgage.
Notice of Incomplete Application, NOIA
a form sent to the buyer that indicates missing or incomplete loan application information. Buyer must provide all required information for the lender to complete the application process.
a verbal and written offer to buy a home for a certain dollar amount made from a buyer to a seller.
a fee, calculated as a small percentage of the value of the loan, charged by a mortgage lender for processing the loan. One of many fees often due at closing and one that must be disclosed on the Good Faith Estimate when a buyer first completes a loan application.
for an adjustable rate mortgage, this is the maximum payment amount a buyer could ever be expected to pay per month.
a second mortgage “piggybacked” onto a first mortgage and used in lieu of mortgage insurance. Cost effectiveness of a piggyback loan depends on current market factors.
a type of mortgage that may be carried by the borrower from one home purchase to the next, portable.
Power of attorney
a legal document that grants an individual the rights to act on behalf of another. For example, if a borrower dies or becomes incapable of managing his or her home loan or mortgage, a power of attorney assigned by that individual could manage his or her mortgage and related decisions.
a lender that is closely affiliated with a brokerage based on reputation and other industry factors. A mortgage lender that is recommended by a broker.
Pre-paid costs or fees
any of a number of fees associated with a mortgage and usually paid out of pocket at the time of closing; includes origination fees, underwriting fees, attorney fees, etc.
the process in which a homebuyer may find out how much of a home loan he or she would be approved for with a lender; gives many buyers more flexibility when shopping for a home.
Primary mortgage market
a conforming loan, one whose loan limits fall within those set by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac and often awarded to borrowers with good credit.
the amount borrowed on a home loan.
the amount currently owed on a home loan.
Private label mortgage outsourcing
a process in which a private bank or financial lender outsources mortgage products to another lender.
Private mortgage insurance, PMI
a type of insurance many homebuyers are required to purchase, particularly when they are unable to put down a certain dollar amount on the loan; protects the lender in the event of borrower default.
lender fees associated with creating the loan or mortgage, usually part of closing costs.
the physical street address of a home or property, required for mortgage application.
a fair market value of property performed by a licensed appraiser; takes into account not only condition, but also the value of similar local properties or comparable sales.
annual local taxes charged against the value of a homeowner’s property.
see Property appraisal.
Quit claim deed
a document that releases one party in a home title from any responsibility and grants all responsibility to another. Commonly used for spouses or in family situations in which more than one individual has an interest in a mortgage or property title.
Rate commitment option, RCO
see Rate lock.
a short-term agreement by a lender to “hold” a certain interest rate on a home loan while the buyer negotiates a sale transaction. Also, Rate commitment option.
Real estate investment trust
securities or mutual funds that invest directly in real estate.
Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA)
this act passed in 1974 reeled in hidden costs, fees and kickbacks that had become widespread among real estate entities. Per this act all fees and costs must be disclosed to both buyers and sellers.
Real estate tax
see Property tax.
process by which a borrower/homeowner may negotiate a lower interest rate on a mortgage, thereby lowering monthly payments. They may choose to work with their current lender, or refinance with another lender.
The current balance owed on a home loan.
The current amount of time remaining in the length of the loan.
mortgage payments laid out over the life of the loan. Some mortgage calculators let borrowers see their repayment schedule based on the amount of the home loan, the interest rate and monthly payments. See also Amortization.
a type of mortgage designed for homeowners over 62 years of age; gives them access to home’s equity in cash payments, frees up money they may use for other important costs or to make needed home repairs. Since reverse mortgages are typically structured as loans, these payments are not typically considered income.
a real estate sales agreement is a formal written contract made between a homebuyer and seller. The document includes property address, condition, purchase price, inspections, date of closing, date of possession and more.
also known as a home equity loan, a second mortgage gives borrowers flexibility to access the cash equity in their home, usually useful for other high-dollar expenses such as auto and college loans.
Secondary mortgage market
the segment of the mortgage and real estate securities market that deals in the investment of mortgages; not direct mortgage lenders.
a real estate agent that works on behalf of the home seller.
useful tool for lenders and homeowners when foreclosure could be a worst-case scenario. In a real estate short-sale lenders give homeowners permission to discount the home value (an outstanding loan balance) to effect a quick sale, thereby averting foreclosure.
Speculative home market
one in which investors snatch up homes for quick re-sale hoping to cash in on improving markets; considered risky by some.
a high-risk loan packaged with non-conforming loan limits and interest rates that make it possible for homebuyers with poor credit to qualify for a mortgage.
a formal survey of property that establishes boundary lines and defines any types of limits on construction and other features that could affect the value of property; in many cases lenders require buyers to purchase a property survey.
see Bridge loan.
Tenancy in common
one or more persons may possess the property title, but ownership may be declared in various percentages.
see Closing costs.
the official document used in the real estate industry that specifies at any one time who owns a piece of property.
a title company typically handles all tasks associated with the property title, including insurance and search.
insurance taken out on the property title that protects both borrower and lender in the event of a title dispute.
research on a property title usually conducted by a title company to determine if there exist any outstanding liens against the property prior to a sales transaction.
Truth in Lending disclosure
a document that all lenders are required to provide when a borrower applies for a home loan. The document discloses interest rates, the amount to be loaned, plus the final cost of the loan upon maturity.
see Bridge loan.
the company or service that evaluates a borrower’s creditworthiness prior to loan and mortgage approval.
special, often discounted, home loans designed exclusively for military veterans.
indicates no past liens or disputes against the property; the holder of the property deed has the right to sell it to another.